With regard to the number of Stations it is not at all easy to determine how this came to be fixed at fourteen, for it seems to have varied considerably at different times and places. Transcription. [11] A number of rural examples were established as attractions in their own right, usually on attractive wooded hills. The images are from St. Paul of the Cross Parish on Singer Island … (1912). In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Second Station: Jesus Carries His Cross We adore You, O Christ, and we praise You. It may therefore be conjectured, with extreme probability, that our present series of Stations, together with the accustomed series of prayers for them, comes to us, not from Jerusalem, but from some of the imitation Ways of the Cross in different parts of Europe, and that we owe the propagation of the devotion, as well as the number and selection of our Stations, much more to the pious ingenuity of certain sixteenth-century devotional writers than to the actual practice of pilgrims to the holy places. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Marie Jutras. The stations grew out of imitations of Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem which is believed to be the actual path Jesus walked to Mount Calvary. Community celebrations are usually accompanied by various songs and prayers. The Way Of The Cross A series of self explanatory tweets re the Amazon Synod. Riccoldo da Monte di Croce, Burchard of Mount Sion, James of Verona), mention a "Via Sacra", i.e. . √ Fast and Easy to use. These crosses must be of wood; no other material will do. It is to the cross placed over them that the indulgence is attached. pl.n. The cross is mentioned a number of times in the Bible, but most significantly in the letters of Paul. The way of the cross: The way of life. With regard to the particular subjects which have been retained in our series of Stations, it may be noted that very few of the medieval accounts make any mention of either the second (Christ receiving the cross) or the tenth (Christ being stripped of His garments), whilst others which have since dropped out appear in almost all the early lists. Pope John Paul II led an annual public prayer of the Stations of the Cross at the Roman Colosseum on Good Friday. About the same time the Blessed Eustochia, a poor Clare, constructed a similar set of Stations in her convent at Messina. What is the Cross? Stefano Vagnini's 2002 modular oratorio, Via Crucis,[27] is a composition for organ, computer, choir, string orchestra and brass quartet. (1912). A book entitled "Jerusalem sicut Christi tempore floruit", written by one Adrichomius and published in 1584, gives twelve Stations which correspond exactly with the first twelve of ours, and this fact is thought by some to point conclusively to the origin of the particular selection afterwards authorized by the Church, especially as this book had a wide circulation and was translated into several European languages. [26] Paweł Łukaszewski wrote Via Crucis in 2000 and it was premiered by the Wrocław Opera on Good Friday March 30, 2018, and transmitted on TVP Kultura. The three falls of Christ (third, seventh, and ninth Stations) are apparently all that remain of the Seven Falls, as depicted by Krafft at Nuremburg and his imitators, in all of which Christ was represented as either falling or actually fallen. See more. In 1521, a book called Geystlich Strass (German: "spiritual road") was printed with illustrations of the stations in the Holy Land.[10]. This delegation of a certain priest for the blessing of the Stations must necessarily be done in writing. Way of the Cross. Inasmuch as the Way of the Cross, made in this way, constitutes a miniature pilgrimage to the holy places at Jerusalem, the origin of the devotion may be traced to the Holy Land. A few medieval writers take the meeting with Simon and the women of Jerusalem to have been simultaneous, but the majority represent them as separate events. The erection and use of the Stations did not become at all general before the end of the seventeenth century, but they are now to be found in almost every church. Question: "What is the meaning of the cross?" Produced by http://www.divinemercyrosary.com Stations of the Cross by St. Alphonsus Liguori. For the composition by Franz Liszt, see. a settled route that pilgrims followed, there is nothing in their accounts to identify this with the Way of the Cross, as we understand it. The Via Dolorosa at Jerusalem (though not called by that name before the sixteenth century) was reverently marked out from the earliest times and has been the goal of pious pilgrims ever since the days of Constantine. [25] David Bowie regarded his 1976 song "Station to Station" as "very much concerned with the stations of the cross". "Way of the Cross." Inasmuch as the Way of the Cross, made in this way, constitutes a miniature pilgrimage to the holy places at Jerusalem, the origin of the devotion … Readers who are concerned with the Russia Hoax may wonder what the connection is. In 1731, Pope Clement XII extended to all churches the right to have the stations, provided that a Franciscan father erected them, with the consent of the local bishop. The pastor of such a church, or the superior of such a hospital, convent, etc., should take care to sign the document the bishop or the superior of the monastery sends, so that he may thereby express his consent to have the Stations erected in their place, for the bishop's and the respective pastor's or superior's consent must be had before the Stations are blessed, otherwise the blessing is null and void; Pictures or tableaux of the various Stations are not necessary. In deciding the matter, however, the arrangement and form of a church may make it more convenient to go the other way. In 1857, the bishops of England were allowed to erect the stations by themselves, without the intervention of a Franciscan priest, and in 1862 this right was extended to bishops throughout the church. MLA citation. The Veronica incident does not occur in many of the earlier accounts, whilst almost all of those that do mention it place it as having happened just before reaching Mount Calvary, instead of earlier in the journey as in our present arrangement. Stations 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9 are not specifically attested to in the gospels (Roman Catholics believe in Holy Tradition and this is the Holy Tradition not written but practiced for centuries and therefore valid) and Station 13 (representing Jesus's body being taken down off the cross and laid in the arms of his mother Mary) seems to embellish the gospels' record, which states that Joseph of Arimathea took Jesus down from the cross and buried him. Forty years later Franciscans were allowed back into the Holy Land. The celebration of the Stations of the Cross is especially common on the Fridays of Lent, especially Good Friday. A few medieval writers take the meeting with Simon and the women of Jerusalem to have been simultaneous, but the majority represent them as separate events. —These names are used to signify either a series of pictures or tableaux representing certain scenes in the Passion of Christ, each corresponding to a particular incident, or the … Way of the Cross. Imprimatur. When Romanet Boffin visited Jerusalem in 1515 for the purpose of obtaining correct details for his set of Stations at Romans, two friars there told him that there ought to be thirty-one in all, but in the manuals of devotion subsequently issued for the use of those visiting these Stations they are given variously as nineteen, twenty-five, and thirty-seven, so it seems that even in the same place the number was not determined very definitely. If only painted on the wall the erection is null (Cong. The earliest use of the word Stations, as applied to the accustomed halting-places in the Via Sacra at Jerusalem, occurs in the narrative of an English pilgrim, William Wey, who visited the Holy Land in 1458 and again in 1462, and who describes the manner in which it was then usual to follow the footsteps of Christ in His sorrowful journey. Meaning and examples for 'Way of the Cross' in Spanish-English dictionary. It has already been said that numerous indulgences were formerly attached to the holy places at Jerusalem. The objective of the stations is to help the Christian faithful to make a spiritual pilgrimage through contemplation of the Passion of Christ. Franz Liszt wrote a Via Crucis for choir, soloists and piano or organ or harmonium in 1879. Innocent XII confirmed the privilege in 1694 and Benedict XIII in 1726 extended it to all the faithful. Particularly common as musical accompaniment is the Stabat Mater. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. It is the secret and power of a Christian's life. These names are used to signify either a series of pictures or tableaux representing certain scenes in the Passion of Christ, each corresponding to a particular incident, or the special form of devotion connected with such representations. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries several reproductions of the holy places were set up in different parts of Europe. Formerly their number varied considerably in different places but fourteen are now prescribed by authority. One of the most popularly attended Ways of the Cross at the present day is that in the Colosseum at Rome, where every Friday the devotion of the Stations is conducted publicly by a Franciscan Father. √ 100% FREE. The three falls of Christ (third, seventh, and ninth Stations) are apparently all that remain of the Seven Falls, as depicted by Krafft at Nuremburg and his imitators, in all of which Christ was represented as either falling or actually fallen. Vol. (Philippians 3:8) Fellow brothers and sisters in Christ, let us keep our eyes on the cross and all its richness. Additions and omissions such as these seem to confirm the supposition that our Stations are derived from pious manuals of devotion rather than from Jerusalem itself. Imprimatur. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. At the end of each station the Adoramus Te is sometimes sung. Several travellers, it is true, who visited the Holy Land during the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries, mention a "Via Sacra", i.e., a settled route along which pilgrims were conducted, but there is nothing in their accounts to identify this with the Via Crucis, as we understand it, including special stopping-places with indulgences attached, and such indulgenced Stations must, after all, be considered to be the true origin of the devotion as now practised. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary The Stations of the Resurrection (also known by the Latin name of Via Lucis, Way of Light) are used in some churches at Eastertide to meditate on the Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus Christ. [9] Although several travelers who visited the Holy Land during the 12–14th centuries (e.g. Falcon Valley Music Ed., Stefano Vagnini, Basilica of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Hong Kong Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, "Frommer's Events – Event Guide: Good Friday Procession in Rome (Palatine Hill, Italy)", "Text of the Stations of the Cross for 2020, led by Pope Francis", "First Station: Jesus is condemned to death", "Way of the Cross: Meditations from a corrections facility", "The Official Web Site for the Archdiocese of Detroit", Meditation and Prayers for the Stations of the Cross at the Colosseum, "The Stations of the Cross : Clarion Review", Via Crucis celebration texts used by the Vatican on Good Fridays since 1991, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stations_of_the_Cross&oldid=987137093, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with disputed statements from May 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, All articles that may have off-topic sections, Wikipedia articles that may have off-topic sections from January 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Jesus is stripped of his garments (sometimes called the "Division of Robes"), This page was last edited on 5 November 2020, at 04:05. Modern minimalist stations can be simple crosses with a numeral in the centre. Composer's note in the published score (Boosey and Hawkes, B & H 20286). It is very usual, when the devotion is performed publicly, to sing a stanza of the "Stabat Mater" while passing from one Station to the next. In reply to a question the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences, in 1837, said that, although nothing was ordered on this point, beginning on the Gospel side seemed to be the more appropriate. And, naturally, with varying numbers the incidents of the Passion commemorated also varied greatly. By the early part of the sixteenth century, however, the more reasonable way of traversing the route, by beginning at Pilate's house and ending at Mount Calvary, had come to be regarded as more correct, and it became a special exercise of devotion complete in itself. 15. Ecclesiastical approbation. Remnants of these are often referred to as calvary hills. One of the most frequent of these is the Station formerly made at the remains of the Ecce Homo arch, i.e. Etymology: Way + … Whether this is so or not we cannot say for certain. Some modern liturgists[24] say the traditional Stations of the Cross are incomplete without a final scene depicting the empty tomb and the resurrection of Jesus because Jesus' rising from the dead was an integral part of his salvific work on Earth. Shop for the way of the cross art from the world's greatest living artists. A desire to reproduce the holy places in other lands, in order to satisfy the devotion of those who were hindered from making the actual pilgrimage, seems to have manifested itself at quite an early date. Way of the Cross (STATIONS OF THE CROSS, VIA CRUCIS, VIA DOLOROSA). These may perhaps be regarded as the germ from which the Stations afterwards developed, though it is tolerably certain that nothing that we have before about the fifteenth century can strictly be called a Way of the Cross in the modern sense. APA citation. Tradition asserts that the Blessed Virgin used to visit daily the scenes of Christ's Passion and St. Jerome speaks of the crowds of pilgrims from all countries who used to visit the holy places in his day. New York: Robert Appleton Company. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Marie Jutras. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. The pope himself wrote the texts for the Great Jubilee in 2000 and used the traditional Stations. No particular prayers are ordered; The distance required between the Stations is not defined. [4][6] Occasionally the faithful might say the stations of the cross without there being any image, such as when the pope leads the stations of the cross around the Colosseum in Rome on Good Friday. If a pastor or a superior of a convent, hospital, etc., wishes to have the Stations erected in their places he must ask permission of the bishop. Define The Way of the Cross. The others, though comprising the chief events of the Passion, are not strictly incidents of the Via Dolorosa itself. In 1731 Clement XII still further extended it by permitting the indulgenced Stations to all churches, provided that they were erected by a Franciscan father with the sanction of the ordinary. APA citation. The following are the principal regulations universally in force at the present time with regard to the Stations: In conclusion it may be safely asserted that there is no devotion more richly endowed with indulgences than the Way of the Cross, and none which enables us more literally to obey Christ's injunction to take up our cross and follow Him. Some Stations are valuable works of art, as those, for instance, in Antwerp cathedral, which have been much copied elsewhere. A perusal of the prayers usually given for this devotion in any manual will show what abundant spiritual graces, apart from the indulgences, may be obtained through a right use of them, and the fact that the Stations may be made either publicly or privately in any church renders the devotion specially suitable for all. Even the highly educated Apostle Paul resolved to know nothing except Christ crucified. Peter Maxwell Davies's Vesalii Icones (1969), for male dancer, solo cello and instrumental ensemble, brings together the Stations of the Cross and a series of drawings from the anatomical treatise De humani corporis fabrica (1543) by the Belgian physician Andreas van Wesel (Vesalius). From this it would seem that after Jerusalem had passed under the Turkish domination the pious exercises of the Way of the Cross could be performed far more devoutly at Nuremburg or Louvain than in Jerusalem itself. But whilst this was being done in Europe for the benefit of those who could not visit the Holy Land and yet could reach Louvain, Nuremburg, Romans, or one of the other reproductions of the Via Dolorosa, it appears doubtful whether, even up to the end of the sixteenth century, there was any settled form of the devotion performed publicly in Jerusalem, for Zuallardo, who wrote a book on the subject, published in Rome in 1587, although he gives a full series of prayers, etc., for the shrines within the Holy Sepulchre, which were under the care of the Franciscans, provides none for the Stations themselves. During His public ministry, He faithfully carried out God’s plan all the way to His death on the cross. He explains the reason thus: "it is not permitted to make any halt, nor to pay veneration to them with uncovered head, nor to make any other demonstration". In 1686, in answer to their petition, Pope Innocent XI granted to the Franciscans the right to erect stations within their churches. It is probable that the practice was born in the Franciscan context, but … Rather than meditating about Christ’s journey to the cross, pray with him.. Jesus, as an observant Jewish man, would have prayed the Psalms throughout the day, and drawn strength and peace from them. So Pilate entered his headquarters again and called Jesus and said to him, “Are you the King of the Jews?” In The Catholic Encyclopedia. In 1857 the bishops of England received faculties from the Holy See to erect Stations themselves, with the indulgences attached, wherever there were no Franciscans available, and in 1862 this last restriction was removed and the bishops were empowered to erect the Stations themselves, either personally or by delegate, anywhere within their jurisdiction. [dubious – discuss][16] One very different version, called the Via Lucis ("Way of Light"), comprising the Fourteen Stations of Light or Stations of the Resurrection, starts Jesus rising from the dead and ends with Pentecost. The stations of a Via Crucis –Latin way translated and known as Way of the Cross, but also known as Via Dolorosa, referring to the suffering of Christ during the Way to Calvary– may have remembrance in a Biblical way, to remember and thank the Lord for His great love for us, but we do not need to fall in idolatry or fanaticism. An interesting variation is found in the special set of eleven stations ordered in 1799 for use in the diocese of Vienne. This will be done individually or in a procession most commonly during Lent, especially on Good Friday, in a spirit of reparation for the sufferings and insults that Jesus endured during his passion. (1 Corinthians 2:2) Everything else, he considered rubbish. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. From this it would seem that after Jerusalem had passed under the Turkish domination the pious exercises of the Way of the Cross could be performed far more devoutly at Nuremburg or Louvain than in Jerusalem itself. The custom originated with the Franciscans, but its special connection with that order has now disappeared. As the Stations of the Cross are prayed during the season of Lent in Catholic churches, each station is traditionally followed by a verse of the Stabat Mater, composed in the 13th century by Franciscan Jacopone da Todi. He explains the reason thus: "it is not permitted to make any halt, nor to pay veneration to them with uncovered head, nor to make any other demonstration". http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15569a.htm Way of the cross definition, stations of the cross. [12], The early set of seven scenes was usually numbers 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11 and 14 from the list below. Vol. The following are the principal regulations universally in force at the present time with regard to the Stations: The Alleluia is also sung, except during Lent. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. Hearing Mass or going to Confession or Communion between Stations is not considered an interruption. Analogous to this it may be mentioned that in 1520 Leo X granted an indulgence of a hundred days to each of a set of sculptured Stations, representing the Seven Dolours of Our Lady, in the cemetery of the Franciscan Friary at Antwerp, the devotion connected with them being a very popular one. Such crucifixes cannot be sold, lent, or given away, without losing the indulgence. Copyright © 2020 by Kevin Knight. The thirteen methods of the Way of the Cross found in these pages will enable the follower of Christ to weep and atone for his sins, understand Our Lady's sorrow, pray with the Church, contemplate Our Lord as Eucharistic Victim, accept the Will of God, prepare for judgment, and love his neighbor. In explanations of this it is supposed that the other four falls coincided with His meetings with His Mother, Simon of Cyrene, Veronica, and the women of Jerusalem, and that in these four the mention of the fall has dropped out whilst it survives in the other three which have nothing else to distinguish them. [9] In 1217, St. Francis also founded the Custody of the Holy Land to guard and promote the devotion to holy places. His body is taken down from the cross; and, Pictures or tableaux of the various Stations are not, If, for restoring the church, for placing them in a more convenient position, or for any other reasonable cause, the crosses are moved, this may be done without the, There should if possible be a separate meditation on each of the fourteen incidents of the Via Crucis, not a general meditation on the Passion nor on other incidents not included in the Stations. A perusal of the prayers usually given for this devotion in any manual will show what abundant spiritual graces, apart from the indulgences, may be obtained through a right use of them, and the fact that the Stations may be made either publicly or privately in any church renders the devotion specially suitable for all. Confession and Communion on the day of making the Stations are not necessary provided the person making them is in a state of grace; Ordinarily the Stations should be erected within a church or public oratory. Experience the way of the cross as you never have before. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. These faculties are quinquennial. Ind., 1837, 1838, 1845); If, for restoring the church, for placing them in a more convenient position, or for any other reasonable cause, the crosses are moved, this may be done without the indulgence being lost (1845). It has already been said that numerous indulgences were formerly attached to the holy places at Jerusalem. The Stations of the Cross or the Way of the Cross, also known as the Way of Sorrows or the Via Crucis, refers to a series of images depicting Jesus Christ on the day of his crucifixion and accompanying prayers. And so the cross stands forever as a symbol of those circumstances and events in our experience which humble us, expose us, offend our pride, shame us, and reveal our basic evil -- that evil which Jesus described earlier: "Out of the heart of man come evil thoughts, fornication, theft, murder, adultery, coveting, wickedness, deceit, licentiousness, envy, slander, pride, and foolishness," (Mark 7:22 RSV). It is very usual, when the devotion is performed publicly, to sing a stanza of the "Stabat Mater" while passing from one Station to the next. Alston, G.C. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. At any rate, during the sixteenth century, a number of devotional manuals, giving prayers for use when making the Stations, were published in the Low Countries, and some of our fourteen appear in them for the first time. Alston, G.C. It is the story of Jesus, naturally, and in particular of the Via Crucis, or Way of the Cross, his painful path along the road that led him to Mount Golgotha. Another variation that occurs in different churches relates to the side of the church on which the Stations begin. If one person hold the crucifix, a number present may gain the indulgences provided the other conditions are fulfilled by all. Others that may be enumerated were those at Görlitz, erected by G. Emmerich, about 1465, and at Nuremburg, by Ketzel, in 1468. In reply to a question the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences, in 1837, said that, although nothing was ordered on this point, beginning on the Gospel side seemed to be the more appropriate. But whilst this was being done in Europe for the benefit of those who could not visit the Holy Land and yet could reach Louvain, Nuremburg, Romans, or one of the other reproductions of the Via Dolorosa, it appears doubtful whether, even up to the end of the sixteenth century, there was any settled form of the devotion performed publicly in Jerusalem, for Zuallardo, who wrote a book on the subject, published in Rome in 1587, although he gives a full series of prayers, etc., for the shrines within the Holy Sepulchre, which were under the care of the Franciscans, provides none for the Stations themselves. Nihil Obstat. Learn more. Those at Nuremburg, which were carved by Adam Krafft, as well as some of the others, consisted of seven Stations, popularly known as "the Seven Falls", because in each of them Christ was represented either as actually prostrate or as sinking under the weight of His cross. The Church recalls this devotional path since the XIII century. If there are Franciscan Fathers in the same town or city, their superior must be asked to bless the Stations or delegate some priest either of his own monastery or a secular priest. Benedict XIV in 1742 exhorted all priests to enrich their churches with so great a treasure, and there are few churches now without the Stations. The custom originated with the Franciscans, but its special connection with that order has now disappeared. [10] The earliest use of the word "stations", as applied to the accustomed halting-places in the Via Sacra at Jerusalem, occurs in the narrative of an English pilgrim, William Wey, who visited the Holy Land in the mid-15th century, and described pilgrims following the footsteps of Christ to the cross. Ecclesiastical approbation. Wey's account, written in the middle of the fifteenth century, gives fourteen, but only five of these correspond with ours, and of the others, seven are only remotely connected with our Via Crucis: Inasmuch as the Way of the Cross, made in this way, constitutes a miniature pilgrimage to the holy places at Jerusalem, the origin of the devotion may be traced to the Holy Land. Traduzioni in contesto per "way of the cross" in inglese-italiano da Reverso Context: You knew the way of the cross. The others, though comprising the chief events of the Passion, are not strictly incidents of the Via Dolorosa itself. A book entitled "Jerusalem sicut Christi tempore floruit", written by one Adrichomius and published in 1584, gives twelve Stations which correspond exactly with the first twelve of ours, and this fact is thought by some to point conclusively to the origin of the particular selection afterwards authorized by the Church, especially as this book had a wide circulation and was translated into several European languages. If the Via Crucis goes outside, e.g., in a cemetery or. √ Over 1,500,000 translations. And, naturally, with varying numbers the incidents of the Passion commemorated also varied greatly. [8], After the siege of 1187, Jerusalem fell to the forces of Saladin, the first sultan of Egypt and Syria. The Way of the Cross, holy in its origin and holy in its effects, is likewise an easy form of prayer. Cross, the principal symbol of the Christian religion, recalling the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ and the redeeming benefits of his Passion and death. About this page The number of stations varied between seven and thirty; seven was common. The Cross means many things to many people. Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary.CONTACT US | ADVERTISE WITH NEW ADVENT. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Some have it displayed on their mantel, others wear it around their neck. With regard to the particular subjects which have been retained in our series of Stations, it may be noted that very few of the medieval accounts make any mention of either the second (Christ receiving the cross) or the tenth (Christ being stripped of His garments), whilst others which have since dropped out appear in almost all the early lists. , Mel Gibson 's 2004 film, the arrangement and form of a church may make it more convenient go! Are often referred to as Calvary hills no other material will do it is to the Franciscans the to! Examples for 'Way of the Passion commemorated also varied greatly a desire to reproduce the Via Crucis goes,. 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At the remains of the cross, is written in the cloisters Spanish-English dictionary the meaning of the Homo. The grace it suggests, he faithfully carried out God ’ s plan all the way His... [ 4 ] [ 5 ], out of the most frequent of these are often placed the. Marcel Dupré improvised and transcribed musical meditations based on fourteen poems by Claudel. Other: 2 as follows: it will be noticed that only five of these exactly! Set up in different churches relates to the holy places at Jerusalem no particular prayers are ordered the! Inglese-Italiano da Reverso Context: You knew the way of the cross at the remains of the placed. More convenient to go the other conditions are fulfilled by all Station the Adoramus Te is sometimes sung of! The erection is null ( Cong the diocese of Vienne prior to His death on the way to His in... In different parts of Europe 12:1–2 ) earth are an example to us of the Via Dolorosa in which... 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